Fluoretação da água potável: Uma revisão bibliográfica

Autores

  • Marise Wilsmann Krützmann Universidade Feevale
  • Daiane Bolzan Berlese Universidade Feevale
  • Daniela Montanari Migliavacca Osorio Universidade Feevale
  • Aline Belem Machado Universidade Feevale
  • Dusan Schreiber Universidade Feevale
  • Vanusca Dalosto Jahno Universidade Feevale

Palavras-chave:

fluorine, water fluoridation, toxic effect, neurotoxic

Resumo

A maioria das pessoas tem uma associação positiva do flúor vinculada à prevenção de cáries. No entanto, muitos cientistas se opõem à fluoretação por haver indícios de ser prejudicial à saúde e ao ambiente. O objetivo foi analisar se a extensão dos efeitos adversos à saúde com a ingestão sistêmica de água fluoretada é uma questão preocupante para a sociedade. O estudo de revisão foi realizado na base de dados no Science Direct, Scielo, Pubmed, Scopus, Portal Capes, e consultas em livros e revistas, a partir de meados do século XX, antes do início da fluoretação, aos dias atuais. Os resultados demonstram que a toxicidade do flúor pode causar inúmeras doenças e, principalmente, ocasiona redução de QI em crianças. Além disso, o declínio mundial da cárie ocorreu em áreas fluoretadas e não fluoretadas. As evidências indicam que a fluoretação da água potável é prejudicial à saúde e necessita ser revista, especialmente no que concerne a sua obrigatoriedade no Brasil. A pesquisa científica sobre os efeitos adversos do flúor e sinergismos com outros poluentes, especialmente os emergentes, é muito importante e precisa ser enfatizada.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Marise Wilsmann Krützmann, Universidade Feevale

Mestrado no Programa de Pós Graduação em Qualidade Ambiental da Univerisdade Feevale; Graduada em Física pela UNISINOS

Daiane Bolzan Berlese, Universidade Feevale

Instituto das Ciências da Saúde/ Docente no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Qualidade Ambiental. Doutorado em Bioquímica Toxicológica pela UFSM. Graduada em Química pela UFSM

Daniela Montanari Migliavacca Osorio, Universidade Feevale

Docente no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Qualidade Ambiental. Doutorado em Ecologia pela UFRGS. Mestrado em Engenharia Elétrica pela PUCRS. Graduada em Química pela PUCRS.

Aline Belem Machado, Universidade Feevale

Doutoranda no Programa de Pós Graduação em Qualidade Ambiental da Univerisdade Feevale. Mestrado em Qualidade Ambiental pela Univerisdade Feevale. Graduada em Biomedicina pela Universidade Feevale

Dusan Schreiber, Universidade Feevale

Docente no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Qualidade Ambiental. Doutorado em Administração pela UFRGS. Mestrado em Administração pela UNISINOS. Graduado em Administração de Empresas Habilitação em Comércio Exterior pela UNISNOS 

Vanusca Dalosto Jahno, Universidade Feevale

Docente no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Qualidade Ambiental.Doutorado em Medicina e Ciências da Saúde pela PUCRS. Mestrado em Tecnologias de Materiais e Processos Industriais e em Qualidade Ambiental pela Universidade Feevale e em Engenharia de Materias  pela UFRGS. Graduada em Química Industrial e Licenciatura Plena em Química pela PUCRS.

Referências

BASHASH, B.; THOMAS, D.; HU, H.; MARTINEZ-MIER, E.A.; SANCHEZ, B.N.; BASU, N.; PETERSON, K.E.; ETTINGER, A.S.; WRIGHT, R.; ZHANG, Z.; LIU, Y.; SCHNAAS, L.; MERCADO-GARCÍA, A.; TÉLLEZ-ROJO, M.M.; HERNÁNDEZ-AVILA, M. Prenatal Fluoride Exposure and Cognitive Outcomes in Children at 4 and 6–12 Years of Age in Mexico. Environmental Health Perspectives, v. 125, n. 9, 2017. Doi: 10.1289/EHP655.

BASHASH, B.; MARCHAND, M.; HU,H.; TILL, C.; MARTINEZ-MIER, E.A.; SANCHEZ, B.N.; BASU, N.; PETERSON, K.E.; GREEN, R.; SCHNAAS, L.; MERCADO-GARCÍA, A.; HERNÁNDEZ-AVILA, M.; TÉLLEZ-ROJO, M.M. Prenatal fluoride exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children at 6-12 years of age in Mexico City. Environment International, v. 10, n. 121, p. 658-666, 2018. Doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.09.017.

BASSIN, E.B.; WYPIJ, D., DAVIS, R.B., MITTLEMAN, M.A. Age-specific fluoride exposure in drinking water and osteosarcoma (United States). Cancer Causes & Control, v. 17, n. 4, p. 421-428, 2006. Doi: 10.1007/s10552-005-0500-6.

BFS (British Fluoridation Society). The extent of water fluoridation. One in a Million: The facts about water fluoridation, 3rd ed., 2012.

BRASIL. Ministério da Saúde. Lei Federal nº 6050 de 24 de maio de 1974. Lei que torna obrigatória a fluoretação da água no Brasil. Diário Oficial da União, 1974.

BROWNSTEIN, D. Iodine: Why you need it, why you can't live without it. Orchard Lake, MI: Medical Alternatives Press, 5th ed., 2014, 259 p.

BRYSON, C. The Fluoride Deception. New York: Seven Stories Press, 1st ed., 2006, 400 p.

CANGUSSU, M.C.T.; NARVAI, P.C.; FERNANDEZ, R.C.; DJEHIZIAN, V. A Fluorose Dentária no Brasil: Uma Revisão Crítica. Rio de Janeiro: Caderno de Saúde Pública, v. 18, n. 1, p. 7-15, 2002.

CARSON, R. Silent Spring. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1st ed., 1962, 368 p.

CHOI, A.L.; SUN, G.; ZHANG, Y.; GRANDJEAN, P. Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Harvard: Environmental Health Perspective, v. 120, n. 10, 2012. Doi: 10.1289/ehp.1104912.

COLBORN, T.; DUMANOSKI, D.; MYERS, J. P. Our stolen future: Are we threatening our fertility, intelligence, and survival? A scientific detective story. New York, Plume Books, Reprint ed. (1997), 2016, 336 p.

COLQUHOUN, J. Why I Changed My Mind About Water Fluoridation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, v. 41, p. 29-44, 1997.

COLQUHOUN, J. Fluorides and the decline in tooth decay in New Zealand. Fluoride, New Zealand, v. 26, p. 125-134, 1993.

CONNETT, P.; BECK, J.; MICKLEM, H.S. The case against fluoride: how toxic waste ended up in our drinking water and the bad science and politics that keep it there. Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing, 1st ed., 2010, 392 p.

COPLAN, M.J.; PATCH, S. C.; MASTERS, R. D.; BACHMAN, M. S. Confirmation of and explanations for elevated blood lead and other disorders in children exposed to water disinfection and fluoridation chemicals. Neurotoxicology, v. 28, p. 1032 -1042, 2007.

DEAN, H.T. Endemic dental fluorosis or mottled enamel. Chicago: Journal American Dental Association, v. 30, p. 1278–1283, 1943.

DENBESTEN, P.; LI, W. Chronic fluoride toxicity: Dental fluorosis. Department of Orofacial Sciences, School of Dentistry, Monogr Oral Sci, v. 22, p. 81-96, 2011. Doi: 10.1159/000327028.

DENZINGER, H.F.J.; KONIG, H.J.; KRUGER, G.E.W. Fluorine recovery in the fertilizer industry - A Review. Phosphorous & Potassium, v. 103, p. 33-39, 1979.

EIDELWEIN, C. Panorama, benefícios e controvérsias da fluoretação da água de abastecimento público no Brasil e no mundo: uma revisão de literatura. Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso de Especialização em Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre. UFRGS, 2010, 62 p.

EPA (Environment Protection Agency). Primary Aluminum Draft Guidelines for Control of Fluoride Emissions from Existing Primary Aluminum Plants. Emission Standards and Engineering Division. EPA 450/2-78-049ª, 1979.

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). Letter from Rebecca Hanmer, Deputy Assistant Administrator for Water to Leslie A. Russell. March 30, 1980.

FAN (Fluoride Alert Network). Fluoride Alert Network Bulletin On-line. 2018. Disponível em: <http://fluoridealert.org/content/content-bulletin_3-16-18/> (Accesso em: 18/03/2018).

FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Letter of May 8, 2000, from Ken Calvert Chairman Subcommittee on Energy and Environment Committee on Science to Dr. Jane E. Henney, Commissioner of Food and Drugs, regarding the use of fluoride in drinking water and drug products. 2000. Disponível em: <http://www.fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/fda-2000a.pdf> (Acesso em 26/06/2018).

FEATHERSTONE, J.D.B.; SHIELDS, C.P. A Study of Fluoride Intake in New York State Residents. Eastman Dental Center, Rochester, NY, 0114Uc1288-1, 1988.

GEERAERTS, F.; GIJIS, G.; FINNE, E.; CROKAERT, R. The Kinetics of Fluoride Penetration in The Liver and the Brain. Fluoride, New Zealand, v. 19, p. 108-112, 1986.

GLASSER, G.C. Fluoride and the phosphate connection. Earth Island Journal, Berkeley, v. 13, n. 3, 1998, pS14(2).

GRANDJEAN, P.; LANDRIGAN, P.J. Neurobehavioural Effects of Developmental Neurotoxicity. Lancet Neurology, v. 13, n. 3, p. 330-338, 2014. Doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70278-3.

GRIFFITHS, J. Fluoride: Commie Plot or Capitalist Ploy. Covert Action, Washington DC, v. 42, p. 27-30, 1992.

HAMILL, S.D. Unveiling a Museum, a Pennsylvania Town Remembers the Smog That Killed 20. The New York Times, New York, 2008.

HIRZY, J.W.; CARTON, R. J.; BONANNI, C. D.; MONTANERO, C. M.; NAGLE, M. F. Comparison of Hydrofluorosilicic Acid and Pharmaceutical Sodium Fluoride as Fluoridating Agents-A Costbenefit Analysis. Journal of Environmental Science and Policy, v. 29, p. 81–6, 2013. Corrigendum, v. 38, 2014, p. 282-284.

HIRZY, J.W.; CONNETT, P.; XIANG, Q.; SPITTLE, B. J.; KENNEDY D.C. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Fluoride: A Quantitative Risk Analysis Towards Establishing a Safe Daily Dose of Fluoride for Children. Fluoride, New Zealand, v. 49(4 Pt 1), p. 379-400, 2016.

ITABIRA. Informação recebida por e-mail em 28 de junho de 2017 do Sr. Jorge Martins Borges, SAAE ambiental e Engenharia sanitária, Itabira, MG, 2017.

JASINSKI, S.M. Phosphate Rock. U.S. Geological Survey. Mineral Commodity Summaries, USA Government, 2016, p. 124-125.

KHARB, S.; SANDHU, R.; KUNDU, Z.S. Fluoride levels and osteosarcoma. South Asian Journal of Cancer, India, v. 1, n. 2, 2012, p. 76–77. Doi:10.4103/2278-330X.103717.

KO, L.; THIESSEN, K.M. Review. A critique of recent economic evaluations of community water fluoridation. Oak Ridge Center for Risk Analysis, Oak Ridge, TN, USA, 2015. Doi:10.1179/2049396714Y.0000000093.

KOMATI, S.H.; FIGUEIREDO, B.R. Flúor em Água e Prevalência de Fluorose em Amparo (SP). São Paulo, UNESP, Geociências, v. 32, n. 3, 2013, p. 547-559.

LEVY, S.M.; WARREN, J.J.; DAVIS, C. S.; KIRCHNER, H.L.; KANELLIS M.J.; WEFEL, J.S. Patterns of fluoride intake from birth to 36 months. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, Bethesda MD, v. 61, n. 2, p. 70-77, 2001.

LEVY, S.M; GUHA-CHOWDHURY, N. Total Fluoride Intake and Implication for Dietary Fluoride Supplementation. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, v. 59, n. 4, p. 211-223, 1999.

LEVY, S.M; WARREN, J.J; BROFFITT, B. Patterns of Fluoride Intake from 36 to 72 Months of Age. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, v. 63, n. 4, p. 211-220, 2003.

LEWIS, D.W.; BANTING, D.W. Water fluoritadion: Current Effectiveness and Dental Fluoroosis. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, Medford, v. 22, p. 153-158, 1994.

LIMEBACK, H. Why I Am Now Officially Opposed To Adding Fluoride To Drinking Water. Former President, Canadian Association for Dental Research, 2000. Disponível em: <http://fluoridealert.org/articles/limeback/> (Acesso em 20/06/2019).

LOUREIRO, F.E.L.; MONTE, M.B. D.M.; NASCIMENTO, M. Agrominerais - Fosfato. In: Da Luz, A.B.; Lins, F.A.F. Rochas & Minerais Industriais: Usos e Especificaçôes. CETEM/MCT, Rio de Janeiro, 2ª ed., 2008, p. 141–180.

LU, Y.; SUN, Z.R.; WU, L.N.; WANG, X.; LU, W.; LIU, S.S. Effect of high-fluoride water on intelligence in children, China, Fluoride, New Zealand, v. 33, n. 2, p. 74-78, 2000.

LUKE, J. Fluoride Deposition in the Aged Human Pineal Gland. Caries Research, v. 35, n. 2, p. 125-128, 2001. Doi: 10.1159/000047443.

MARCUS, W.L. Lead Health Effects in Drinking Water. Toxicology and Industrial Health, SAGE Publications, v. 2, p. 363-407, 1986.

MASTERS, R.D.; COPLAN, M.J. Water treatment with silicofluorides and lead toxicity. International Journal of Environmental Studies, v. 56, p. 435-449, 1999. Doi: 10.1080/00207239908711215.

MASTERS, R.D.; COPLAN, M.J.; HONE, B.T.; DYKES, J.E. Association of silicofluoride treated water with elevated blood lead. Neurotoxicology, v. 21, p. 1091-1099, 2000.

MERCOLA, J.; MERMER, C.A. Fluoride and Apoptosis: Trading Dental Caries for Cellular Death? Education and debate. BMJ, v. 322, p. 1536, 2001.

MULLENIX, P.J. A New Perspective on Metals and Other Contaminants in Fluoridation Chemicals. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, v. 20, n. 2, p. 157-166, 2014. Doi: 10.1179/2049396714Y.0000000062.

MULLENIX, P.J.; DENBESTEN, P.K.; SCHUNIOR, A.; KERNAN, W.J. Neurotoxicity of sodium fluoride in rats. Neurotoxicity and Teratology, v. 17, n. 2, p. 169-177, 1995. Doi: 10.1016/0892-0362(94)00070-T.

NARVAI, P.C. Dental caries and fluorine: a twentieth century relation. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, Rio de Janeiro, v. 5, n. 2, 2000. Doi: 10.1590/S1413-81232000000200011.

NRC (National Research Council). Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards Committee on Fluoride in Drinking Water. Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council Press, Washington, 2006.

NTEU (The National Treasury Employees Union). EPA Scientists Oppose Fluoridation. Washington – DC, 1999. Disponível em: <http://cof-cof.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Why-U.S.-Environmental-Protection-Agency-Headquarters-Union-Of-Scientists-Oppose-Fluoridation-NTEU-01-May-1999.pdf > (Acesso em 3/03/2018).

ONU (Organização das Nações Unidas) Especialistas da ONU pedem que EUA resolva o problema de contaminação da água por chumbo em Flint. 2016. Disponível em: <https://nacoesunidas.org/especialistas-da-onu-pedem-que-eua-resolva-problema-de-contaminacao-da-agua-por-chumbo-em-flint/> (Acesso em 5/03/2018).

OZSVATH, D. Fluoride and Environmental Health: A Review. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, University of Wisconsin, 2008.

PAIN, G.N. A Quick Guide to Fluoride Harms. Technical Report. 2017. Doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18410.00967.

PECKHAM, S.; AWOFESO, I. Water Fluoridation: A Critical Review of the Physiological Effects of Ingested Fluoride as a Public Health Intervention. The Scientific World Journal, London, v. 2014, 10, 2014 Doi: 10.1155/2014/293019.

PECKHAM, S.; LOWERY, D.; SPENCER, S. Are Fluoride Levels in Drinking Water Associated with Hypothyroidism Prevalence in England? A Large Observational Study of GP Practice Data and Fluoride Levels in Drinking Water. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, London, v. 69, n. 7. p. 619-624, 2015. Doi: 10.1136/jech-2014-204971.

PERL, D.P. Exposure to Aluminium and the Subsequent Development of a Disorder With Features of Alzheimer's Disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, v. 77, n. 7, p. 811, 2006.

PETITION. Citizens Petition in Re: Use of Hydrofluosilicic Acid in Drinking Water Systems of the United States to EPA. TSCA section 21 Petition. Apri1 22, 2013. Disponível em: <https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-10/documents/hfsa_section21_petition.pdf> (Acesso em 23/03/2018).

PHE (Public Health England). Water Fluoridation - Health Monitoring Report for England 2018. London, PHE Publications, 2018.

RAVULA, S. HARINARAYAN, C.V.; PRASAD, U.V.; RAMALAKSHMI, T.; RUPUNGUDI, A.; MADROLA, V. Effect of Fluoride on Reactive Oxygen Species and Bone Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women. Fluoride, New Zealand, v .45, n. 2, 2012, p. 108-15.

REDDY, D.R. Neurology of Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis. Neurology India, v. 9, n. 57, p. 7-12, 2009. Doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.48793.

ROCHA-AMADOR, D.; NAVARRO, M.E, CARRIZALES, L, MORALES, R, CALDERON, J. Decreased Intelligence in Children and Exposure to Fluoride and Arsenic in Drinking Water. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, v.23 (Suppl 4), p. S579–87. , 2007 Doi: 10.1590/S0102-311X2007001600018.

ROHOLM, K. Fluorine Intoxication: A Clinical-Hygienic Study with a Review of the Literature and some Experimental Investigations. HK Lewis, London, 1937, 364 p.

ROHOLM, K. The Fog Disaster in the Meuse Valley, 1930: A Fluorine Intoxication. The Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Bethesda MD/USA, v. 19, n. 3, p. 126–137, 1937a.

ROSE, D.; MARIER, J.R. Environmental Fluoride. NRCC No. 16081. National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, 1977, p. 75-83.

ROSENBERG, S.A. Amesbury: Voters Reject Fluoridation of City Water. The Boston Globe. 2011. Disponível em: http://archive.boston.com/news/local/articles/2011/11/20/clogging_problems_prompted_amesbury_voters_to_reject_fluoride_in_drinking_water/ (Acesso em 25/02/2018).

SAXENA, S.; SAHAY, A.; GOEL, P. Effect of Fluoride Exposure on the Intelligence of School Children in Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of Neuroscience in Rural Practice, v. 3, n. 2, p. 144–149, 2012. Doi: 10.4103/0976-3147.98213.

SCHMIDT, G.; KUPPENS, C.; ROBINSON, P. Handling of radium and uranium contaminated waste piles and other wastes from phosphate ore processing. Nuclear Science and Technology, CEC Report 15448EN, European Commission, Luxemburgo, 1995.

SHIVARAJASHANKARA, Y.M.; SHIVASHANKARA, A.R. Neurotoxic Effects of Fluoride in Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis and in Experimental Chronic Fluoride Toxicity. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, India, v. 6, n. 4, p. 740 –744, 2012.

SHIVARAJASHANKARA, Y.M.; SHIVASHANKARA, A.R; BHAT, P.G.; RAO, S.H. Brain Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Systems of Young Rats in Chronic Fluoride Intoxication. Fluoride, New Zealand, v. 35, n. 3, p. 197-203, 2002.

SILVA, R.M.; GIULIETTI, M. Fosfogesso: Geração, Destino e Desafios. In: Agrominerais para o Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: CETEM/MCT, 2010, p. 125-145.

SPITTLE, B. Fluoride, IQ, and Advice on Type I and II Errors. Fluoride, New Zealand, v. 47, n. 3, p. 188-190, 2014.

STRUNECKÁ, A.; BLAYLOCK, R.L.; PATOCKA, J. Aluminofluoride Complexes: Phosphate Analogues and a Hidden Hazard for Living Organisms. Current Inorganic Chemistry, v. 2, p. 8-18, 2012. Doi: 10.2174/1877944111202010008.

STRUNECKÁ, A.; PATOCKA J. Pharmacological and Toxicological Effects of Aluminofluoride Complexes. Fluoride, New Zealand, v. 32, p. 230-242, 1999.

TANG, Q.Q.; DU, J.; MA, H.H.; JIANG, S.J.; ZHOU, X.J. Fluoride and Children's Intelligence: A Meta-analysis. Biological Trace Element Research, v. 126, p. 115–20, 2008. Doi: 10.1007/s12011-008-8204-x.

TENNANT, J. Hypothyroidism - The Epidemic. Tennant Institute Integrative Medicine Newsletter, v. 1, 2008.

THIESSEN, K.M. Comments on Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental Caries. 2011. Disponível em: http://www.fluoridefreefairbanks.org/localweb/IAOMT-0.7ppm-comments.hhs.pdf (Accesso em 3/03/2018).

TOMLJENOVIC, L. Aluminum and Alzheimer's disease: after a century of controversy, is there a plausible link? Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, v. 23, n. 4, p. 567-598, 2011. Doi: 10.3233/JAD-2010-101494.

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). World Water Assessment Programme. The United Nations World Water Development Report 3: Water in a Changing World. Paris: Unesco; London: Earthscan, 2009.

VALDEZ-JIMÉNEZ, L.; FREGOZO, C.S.; BELTRÁN, M.L.M,; CORONADO, O.G.; VEGA, M.I.P. Effects of the Fluoride on the Central Nervous System. Neurologia, Madrid, v. 26, n. 5, 2011, p. 297-300. Doi: 10.1016/j.nrl.2010.10.008.

VANDENBERG, L.N.; COLBORN, T.; HAYES, T.B.; HEINDEL, J.J.; JACOBS, D.R. JR.; LEE, D.H.; SHIODA, T.; SOTO, A.M.; VOM SAAL, F.S.; WELSHONS, W.V.; ZOELLER, R.T.; MYERS, J.P. Hormones and Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Low-Dose Effects and Nonmonotonic Dose Responses. Endocrine Reviews, Oxford University Press, 2012. Doi:10.1210/er.2011-1050.

WALDBOTT, G.L. A Struggle with Titans. New York: Carlton Press, 1965, 383 p.

WALDBOTT, G.L. Incipient Fluorine Intoxication from Drinking Water. Journal of Internal Medicine, v 156, n 3, p. 157-168, 1956.

WALDBOTT, G.L; BURGSTAHLER, A.W.; MCKINNEY, H.L. Fluoridation: The Great Dilemma. Lawrence, Kansas: Coronado Press Inc., 1978, 423 p.

WALTON, J.R. Functional impairment in aged rats chronically exposed to human range dietary aluminum equivalents. Neurotoxicology, v. 30, p. 182-193, 2009. Doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2008.11.012.

WANG, C.; GAO, Y.; WANG, W.; ZHAO, L.; ZHANG, W.; HAN, H.; SHI, Y.; YU, G.; SUN, D. (2012). A national cross-sectional study on effects of fluoride-safe water supply on the prevalence of fluorosis in China. BMJ Open, v. 2: e001564. Doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001564.

WENG, C-N.; SMITH, D.B.; HUNTLY, G.M. Treatment Chemicals contribute to arsenic levels. American Water Works Association (AWWA): Opflow, Denver, v. 26, n. 10, p. 6-7, 2000.

WHO (World Health Organization). Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme. Department of Noncommunicable Diseases Surveillance/Oral Health. WHO Collaborating Centre, Malmö University, Sweden, 2012.

WHO (World Health Organization). Chemicals of public health concern in the African Region and their management. Regional Assessment Report, 2014.

WIMALAWANSA, S.J. The role of ions, heavy metals, fluoride, and agrochemicals: critical evaluation of potential aetiological factors of chronic kidney disease of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo/CKDu) and recommendations for its eradication. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, Berlin, v. 38, n. 3, p. 639-678, 2016. Doi: 10.1007/s10653-015-9768-y.

YIAMOUYIANNIS, J. Fluoride: The Aging Factor. Health Action Press, Ohio, USA, 1st ed., 1983, 210 p.

YIAMOUYIANNIS, J. Water Fluoridation & Tooth Decay: Results from the 1986-1987 National Survey of US Schoolchildren. Fluoride, New Zealand, v. 23, n. 2, p. 55-67, 1990.

ZHAO, L.B.; LIANG, G.H.; ZHANG, D.N.; WU, X.R. Effect of high-fluoride water supply on children's intelligence. Fluoride, v. 29, n. 4, p. 190-192, 1996.

Downloads

Publicado

2019-12-27

Como Citar

Wilsmann Krützmann, M., Bolzan Berlese, D., Montanari Migliavacca Osorio, D., Belem Machado, A., Schreiber, D., & Dalosto Jahno, V. (2019). Fluoretação da água potável: Uma revisão bibliográfica. Revista Geama, 5(3), 18–28. Recuperado de http://journals.ufrpe.br/index.php/geama/article/view/2671

Edição

Seção

REVISÃO DE LITERATURA