Interação microbiana e metanogênese em ruminantes – uma revisão

Fernando dos Santos Magaço, Eduardo Robson Duarte

Resumo


A produção animal contribui de forma significativa na emissão de gases de efeito estufa de origem antropogênica. A fermentação entérica e ruminal produz metano que representa o gás de maior relevância nesse efeito. Nesta revisão objetivou-se analisar os efeitos das práticas utilizadas para mitigação da emissão do metano (CH4) na interação microbiológica do rúmen. O CH4 entérico emitido pelos ruminantes resulta da atividade da população de archaeas metanogênicas que desenvolveram relação evolutiva complexa com a comunidade de protozoários ciliados, bactérias e fungos anaeróbicos. Esses microrganismos produzem substratos que são utilizados pelas metanogênicas no metabolismo energético, gerando CH4. Em termos produtivos, representa baixa eficiência na utilização da energia do alimento ingerido, porém, metabolicamente é um processo favorável para o ecossistema ruminal. A manipulação do ambiente ruminal com vista a reduzir a emissão de metano e melhorar a eficiência energética, tem se baseado na melhora da qualidade das pastagens, manejo nutricional e alimentar, seleção e melhoramento genético. Ademais, a utilização dessas práticas resultam em modificações na estrutura microbiana e nos mecanismos fermentativos a curto prazo. Contudo, estudos são recomendados para avaliar os efeitos das diversas técnicas à longo prazo no ambiente ruminal.

Palavras-chave


archaea; metano; microbiota autoctone; rúmen.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26605/medvet-v13n1-2615

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