Competência oocitária: importância e fatores determinantes in vivo e in vitro

Letícia Ferrari Crocomo, Fernanda da Cruz Landim-Alvarenga, Sony Dimas Bicudo

Resumo


As biotécnicas reprodutivas impulsionaram a pecuária no cenário do agronegócio mundial em virtude da redução do intervalo entre gerações, acelerado ganho genético e intensificação da produtividade. Nesse âmbito, existem, no entanto, desafios biológicos e fisiológicos que, apesar do avanço científico e biotecnológico, ainda não foram solucionados. A superovulação associada à aspiração folicular e a produção in vitro de embriões a partir de complexos cumulus-oócitos (COCs) que, outrora, entrariam em atresia, tem sua eficiência limitada, basicamente, pela qualidade oocitária, a qual está diretamente relacionada à competência do oócito em completar sua capacitação, representada pela maturação nuclear e citoplasmática, além de suportar a fertilização e embriogênese inicial. Esse processo de capacitação oocitária, tanto in vivo quanto in vitro, determina, portanto, o potencial de desenvolvimento embrionário e envolve uma complexa interação de moléculas regulatórias além de alterações moleculares e estruturais, os quais estão, ainda, sob a influência de fatores intra e extra-ovarianos. Sendo assim, dada a importância do oócito para fertilidade da fêmea, a presente revisão tem como intuito discutir os principais aspectos implicados no contexto da capacitação oocitária e seus fatores interferentes assim como apresentar possíveis métodos de seleção de COCs competentes.

Palavras-chave


oócito; cumulus; capacitação; competência; biotécnicas reprodutivas.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26605/medvet-v13n1-2619

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